Under pressure to prevent a catastrophic breakup of their single currency, eurozone leaders agreed yesterday to let their rescue fund inject aid directly into stricken banks from next year and intervene on bond markets to support troubled member states.
They also pledged to create a single banking supervisor for eurozone banks based around the European Central Bank in a landmark first step towards a European banking union that could help shore up struggling member Spain.
“It is a first step to break the vicious circle between banks and sovereigns,” European Council President Herman Van Rompuy told a final news conference after talks which stretched right through the night.
The deal was widely seen as a political victory for embattled Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti and his Spanish counterpart, Mariano Rajoy, over German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who had brushed aside any need for such emergency measures earlier this week.
ECB president Mario Draghi endorsed the “tangible results”, which sent the euro nearly 2% higher and sharply cut Spanish and Italian bond yields. European shares rose, led by banking stocks buoyed by the prospect of moves to backstop the financial system.
“I am actually quite pleased with the outcome of the European Council. It showed the long-term commitment to the euro by all member states of the euro area,” Draghi told reporters.
Market participants welcomed the outcome as a substantial step to restore confidence in the 17-nation eurozone, which was saluted by a more durable rally than previous summit outcomes.
“It’s inching closer to a banking union, and the closer we get to a banking union would put (the EU) well on the road to a fiscal union,” said Art Hogan, managing director of Lazard Capital Markets in New York.
Most economists polled by Reuters expect the ECB to cut borrowing costs at its July 5 meeting, which takes place against a darkening economic backdrop. But internal resistance to the central bank reviving its bond-buying programme remains high.
After 14 hours of tense talks that ended at 4.30am (0230 GMT), the 17 leaders agreed on a series of short-term steps to shore up their monetary union and bring down the borrowing costs of Spain and Italy, seen as too big to bail out.
To that end the eurozone’s temporary EFSF and permanent ESM rescue funds will be used “in a flexible and efficient manner in order to stabilise markets” to support countries that comply with EU budget policy recommendations, a joint statement said.
It gave few specifics, but eurozone officials said the funds could buy bonds on both the primary and secondary markets on the basis of a memorandum of understanding signed with the requesting state and up to a funding limit to be agreed.
Both Italy and Spain said they did not intend to call on that mechanism to stabilise markets for now, hoping the Brussels agreement will serve as a sufficient deterrent.
Washington said it was encouraged by the progress but White House press secretary Jay Carney told reporters travelling with President Barack Obama that “a lot of details” still needed to be worked out, and the eurozone was likely to need to take further steps in the future. The International Monetary Fund said the summit had taken “the right steps toward completing monetary union” while ratings agency Fitch said the deal eased near-term pressure on eurozone sovereign ratings.
In a key concession by EU paymaster Germany, the leaders agreed to waive the ESM’s preferred creditor status on lending for Spanish banks, removing a key deterrent to investors buying Spanish government bonds, who feared having to take the first losses in any debt restructuring.
“We have taken decisions that were unthinkable just some months ago,” European Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso said.
Despite the concessions by Berlin allowing eurozone rescue funds to be used more flexibly, questions remained about the terms, size and supervision of any future aid for Spain and Italy.
There was also no commitment for now to back up a European bank supervisor with a joint deposit guarantee or a common resolution fund, to avert capital flight and taxpayer losses. However, one EU official said that letting the ESM lend directly to banks once the supervisory body is up and running was a backdoor route to closer fiscal union.
Monti, determined to avoid the political stigma of the bailout terms imposed on Greece, Ireland and Portugal, said countries that complied with EU budget recommendations would not face extra austerity conditions or be subject to intrusive inspections by a “troika” of international lenders.
Eager to avoid the impression that she had blinked first, Merkel said strict conditionality would still apply to the use of rescue funds and countries would face stringent monitoring by the EU Commission and the ECB.
Asked if she had yielded to pressure, she said: “There is clearly pressure from financial markets. Some countries are in a difficult situation. The high interest rates affect the debt but also the real economy. We had an interest in finding solutions.”
Merkel reaffirmed her firm opposition to common eurozone bonds.
Economists applauded both the short-term measures to steady markets and the longer-term direction, saying that for once, after 20 summits since the crisis began in early 2010, eurozone leaders had exceeded admittedly low expectations.
from gulf times.