The initiatives bring together countries in Asia, Europe and even Africa via land and maritime networks, aiming to boost infrastructure building, financial cooperation and cultural exchanges in those regions.
Speaking at the opening ceremony of the forum, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Olga Golodets praised the cultural cooperation between Russia and China.
She said that as the forum involved many countries along the Silk Road that share many cultural similarities, it is possible to build a comprehensive exchange platform to expand international cooperation and to promote mutual understanding.
Chinese Ambassador to Russia Li Hui said that the "Belt and Road" strategies would boost the common development of countries with different civilizations.
"The profound culture of every involved country should be explored and further developed through the implementation of the 'Belt and Road' strategies," Li said.
The alignment of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) provides a broader space for the forum.
"We hope that, through this forum, culture could bridge the gap and guide us towards extensive exchange and cooperation," Li said.
During Xi's visit to Moscow in early May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a joint statement on the alignment of the two countries' development initiatives.
The forum was held last December for the first time in the Kazakh capital of Astana.