Kenyan media and opposition politicians have criticised media rules proposed by the government, saying they would muzzle the press and stunt democracy in the country, according to Reuters.
Kenyan members of parliament late on Thursday voted to pass a new law that empowers the government to form a powerful tribunal to draw up a code of conduct for the media.
In an African region where several nations tightly control news-gathering, Kenya's media has enjoyed broad freedoms to criticise successive governments.
Journalists said the aim of the new rules was to stop investigative reports on corruption or that hold the government to account.
The Daily Nation, the biggest circulation newspaper in east Africa, wrote: "Dark days: MPs pass law to control media." The Standard ran the headline: "Democracy under attack".
The government said the bill was still open for discussion.
"Freedom of the press is not under attack in Kenya," information secretary Fred Matiangi told Citizen TV.
Under the Kenya Information and Communication Bill, violating the code could lead fines for an individual of up to 1 million shillings ($11,700) or 20 million shillings for media outlets.
The new bill could become law if signed by President Uhuru Kenyatta, who last week implored journalists to report more responsibly especially over security matters.
Rights activists say the media in Ethiopia, Uganda and Rwanda are tightly controlled by the state authorities.